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These variations in turn have driven rapid changes in life-forms, both flora and fauna.Beginning some 200,000 years ago, they were responsible for the rise of modern humans.In 2005 the ICS decided to recommend keeping the Tertiary and Quaternary in the time scale, but only as informal sub-eras of the Cenozoic.The ICS abandoned the sub-era structure in 2008, deciding instead to formally designate the Quaternary as the uppermost period of the Cenozoic Era, following the aforementioned Paleogene and Neogene periods.The Hoxnian Stage is a middle Pleistocene stage of the geological history of the British Isles.It precedes the Wolstonian Stage and follows the Anglian Stage.In 1948 a decision was made at the 18th International Geological Congress (IGC) in London that the base of the Pleistocene Series should be fixed in marine rocks exposed in the coastal areas of Calabria in southern Italy.
In addition, cold sinking air over the ice sheets created strong down-flowing katabatic winds, drying land near the glaciers.
Grounded ice extended onto the continental shelf in the Barents, Kara, and Laptev seas, much of the Canadian coast, and the Gulf of Maine.
Ice shelves similar to those seen today in the Ross and Weddell seas of Antarctica are postulated to have existed in the Norwegian Sea and the Gulf of Maine and were likely in many other settings.
The Hoxnian Stage is named after Hoxne in the English county of Suffolk where some of the deposits it created were first found.
Plant and vertebrate fossils indicate that it was a period of relatively warm climate.
Less of it has been lost to erosion, and the sediments are not usually altered by rock-forming processes.